Dating site in greenland

Soviet ice drilling projects in Antarctica include decades of work at Vostok Station, with the deepest core reaching 3769 m.Numerous other deep cores in the Antarctic have been completed over the years, including the West Antarctic Ice Sheet project, and cores managed by the British Antarctic Survey and the International Trans-Antarctic Scientific Expedition.These include soot, ash, and other types of particle from forest fires and volcanoes; isotopes such as beryllium-10 created by cosmic rays; micrometeorites; and pollen.The lowest layer of a glacier, called basal ice, is frequently formed of subglacial meltwater that has refrozen.Ice cores have been studied since the early 20th century, and several cores were drilled as a result of the International Geophysical Year (1957–1958).Depths of over 400 m were reached, a record which was extended in the 1960s to 2164 m at Byrd Station in Antarctica.The cuttings (chips of ice cut away by the drill) must be drawn up the hole and disposed of or they will reduce the cutting efficiency of the drill.The fluid must have a low kinematic viscosity to reduce tripping time (the time taken to pull the drilling equipment out of the hole and return it to the bottom of the hole).

Early cores were often collected with hand augers and they are still used for short holes.Below this depth, electromechanical or thermal drills are used.The cutting apparatus of a drill is on the bottom end of a drill barrel, the tube that surrounds the core as the drill cuts downward.A design for ice core augers was patented in 1932 and they have changed little since.An auger is essentially a cylinder with helical metal ribs (known as flights) wrapped around the outside, at the lower end of which are cutting blades.These data can be combined to find the climate model that best fits all the available data. Coastal areas are more likely to include material of marine origin, such as sea salt ions.Greenland ice cores contain layers of wind-blown dust that correlate with cold, dry periods in the past, when cold deserts were scoured by wind.The bubbles disappear and the ice becomes more transparent.The weight above makes deeper layers of ice thin and flow outwards.It can make some snow sublimate, leaving the top inch or so less dense.When the sun approaches its lowest point in the sky, the temperature drops and hoar frost forms on the top layer.

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